Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Sources Of Failure In Strategic Alliance Formulation Commerce Essay

Sources Of Failure In Strategic Alliance Formulation Commerce Essay Today, organizations face global competition and will on the long run only be successful if they can successfully exploit their value delivery potential of the relationships; strategic alliances and partnerships. Organisations that work together for the purpose of mutual benefit is a concept that is gaining ground in business markets, as market leaders now understand that success from collaboration can be a viable competitive advantage. Organisations entering into alliances in the twenty-first century need to size up their prospective partners in order to ensure that they achieve more success than their predecessors. However, identifying the best partner is only the first step in increasing the probably of alliance success. Proper design and coordination are needed to facilitate the stability of an alliance and to achieve an effective working relationship between the partners. Trust and commitment between alliance partners is the ultimate goal. Only then can the true benefits of ente ring into an alliance be realised. It is really important for a company that is interested in forming a strategic alliance that the partner chosen have the internal capacities needed for the performed activity. In other words, the competencies required to achieve the desired goal. In this sense, small differences in terms of management style and culture between the cooperating firms may end up becoming serious problems that make it difficult to create synergies. There are a large number of characteristics (honesty, positive disposition, efficacy, etc.) that can only be appreciated after several years in the relationship. It is convenient for a firm to work informally with another company before formalising the strategic alliance. This can help to assess levels of compatibility and its potential evolution, since it is with daily contact that we can discover the partners habits and tendencies. INTRODUCTION In todays changing and developing business world, strategic alliances have become an important tool for the success many business ventures. According to Ohmae (1989, p 143), last 20 years have been marked an era of world`s development. Some of the evolutions of this period are the globalisation of markets, quick changes in technology, and the expansion of many domestic organizations` boundaries. As result of these rapid motions, strategic alliances have importantly become a competitive necessity. One of the reasons of this necessity is that a single firm is unlikely to have all the resources and capabilities to accomplish global competitiveness. Thus, cooperation between companies which has complementary resources is always important for survival and growth. (Dussauge, Garrette and Mitchell, 1998) According to Morossini (1999), strategic alliances are change for the firms to reduce risks and share resources, gain knowledge and technology, expand the existing product lines, and opport unity to enter new markets. Strategic alliances provide firms to expand their reach without having to maximise their risk or commit themselves beyond their core business. However, as mentioned above, although strategic alliances bring big opportunities and provide conveniences for many companies, at the same time, there are some challenges that can result with failure for the organizations. The percentage of failures of strategic alliances is changeable from a low 30 per cent (Cullen, 2007), to a high 70 per cent (Dacin et al, 2007). Apart from the expecting risks of entering into an alliance competition between partners is often pointed as the major reason for alliance failure (Dacin et al, 1997). Throughout this paper, it will be examined, analysed and discussed that the most frequent sources of failure in forming strategic alliances and what can be done to mitigate these problems. OBSTACLES THAT ALLIANS PARTNERS FACE Obstacles that alliance partners face can be divided into hard and soft issues. Hard factors involve the linking of different financial and control systems and settling legal disputes (The Economist, 1999). On the other hand, soft factors are related to people and human resource issues, which involve building effective working relationships and integrating disparate corporate cultures (Hitt et al, 1999). It is usually the insufficient attention to the soft issues that result in the failure of many strategic alliances. Pertinently, culture permeates a company, and differences can poison any collaboration (The Economist, 1999). The more culturally distant two firms are, the greater the differences in organisational and administrative practices, employee expectations, and the interpretation of strategic issues (Schneider and De Meyer, 1991, p 307). The problem is compounded with cross-border alliances, where language barriers create communication problems. Poor communication often leads to coordination problems, managerial conflict and distrust. Without trust, the cost of transferring managerial practices and technologies will be high, because safeguards against opportunistic behaviour are needed (Park and Ungson, 1997, p 279). Therefore, in order to avoid such problems, firms entering into an alliance need to be culturally compatible. Indeed, it has been suggested that cultural compatibility is the most important factor in ensuring the long-term success of an alliance (Lane and Beamish, 1990, p 87). SOURCES OF FAILURE IN FORMING STRATEGIC ALLIANCES There are always a series of challenges that have to be faced when forming a strategic alliance and the right people need to be recruited in order for the alliance to be a success. Some of these challenges are discussed below: (Tetenbaum, 2001) Small differences in terms of management style and culture between the cooperating companies may end up becoming serious problems that will make it very difficult to create a synergy, therefore leading to a poor financial performance or even total dissolution of the alliance. It is essential for the human resources team to be aware of these differences in order for them to properly formulate and help with the implementation of the organizational strategy within the alliance. I will present some of the differences that help in the success or failures of a strategic alliance and that have to be addressed by the human resource department. Problems that result from human are significant for the implementation of an alliance, and may alone determine its success or failure. For this reason, it is significant that HRM specifies every member`s ability in the organization, within the management team, and what motivates those skills, in order to place the appropriate individuals in key positions. (Tetenbaum, 2001) The most critical period of a strategic alliance is the beginning part which is a period of maximum uncertainty and apprehension for the workers, along that the company has to find a reaction to their logical concerns, giving these employees something better than what they already have, therefore succeeding in establishing stability long enough to guarantee some permanent results. (Tetenbaum, 2001) A strategic alliance usually brings about the introduction of a series of changes in the co-operating organisations behaviour. These changes can be a sign a potential source of challenges and conflicts with the companys personnel which may lead to the failure of the collaboration, if they are not properly sorted out. (Tetenbaum, 2001) The Culture: Although the organizational change derived from the creation of a strategic alliance is conditioned by the attitude of the human resources, this attitude also depends on the personal values and the corporate culture. This brings us to the following subject which gives us another source of problems when implementing a strategic alliance. (Tetenbaum, 2001) Culture: The existence of different cultures is an obstacle that strategic alliances are forced to encounter. The resistance to change may arise because the low rank employees may have not been properly informed of what the goals are; they might be less experienced than top management at working with people form other culture, or they just do not agree with the new alliance. This is why the human resources team is a key element for the strategic alliance. (Tetenbaum, 2001) Different Types of Culture: National and organizational cultures have an impact on the degree of organizational involvement and outcomes. National culture has been defined by Hofstede as, the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group or category of people from another. (Tetenbaum, 2001) WHAT CAN BE DONE TO MITIGATE THESE PROBLEMS? There are some factors and key point that need to be taken into account by organizations when joining into a strategic alliances or a strategic alliance is being formed. Organizations that fit these important points will always be successful. Some of these important factors can be specified as followings: Organisations entering into alliances in the twenty-first century need to size up their prospective partners in order to ensure that they achieve more success than their predecessors. However, identifying the best partner is only the first step in increasing the probably of alliance success. Proper design and coordination are needed to facilitate the stability of an alliance and to achieve an effective working relationship between the partners. Trust and commitment between alliance partners is the ultimate goal. Only then can the true benefits of entering into an alliance be realised. (Saxton, 1997) Executive managers will need to have know-how; however other competencies will be required to create a synergy. Ideally these competencies will be found in all the persons involved with the project. Some of the competencies required by the human resources management team when selecting the members of the strategic alliance are: flexibility, humbleness, integrity, patience, curiosity, and not afraid of making mistakes. It is important that HRM determine whether the right person can be found within the ranks of the company or whether external recruiting is the best choice. This decision is crucial for the future of the alliance. CONCLUSION In order for an alliance to work the human resources team must take the time to understand the challenges existing when putting two companies together and they have to be willing to unite two groups of managers that will have to plan for and build their new organization; they need to be sensitive to the human, organizational culture, and cultural issues that have to be addressed along the way. Most important, the human resource team needs to find and motivate executives that want to grow their businesses and create added value for their shareholders, customers, employees, and themselves. What we can assume from the several researches that have been done is that, cooperation and effective management are major points for the success of the alliance. From the problems that appear within a strategic alliance, these related to the human resource management which participate in the alliance especially stand out. Therefore, using knowledge related asymmetries may be a way to protect a companys specific asset while gaining valuable knowledge from the alliance without attacking the partner company. Another situation that has to be taken into consideration is that the appearance of cultural challenges does not mean that the strategic alliance will be dissolve. The human resources team has to put in place a training programme for cultural understanding to help employees cope with the differences. On the other hand, it is very important to include managers with multicultural skills within the alliance team to be able to sooth any possible tension. Finally, we can observe that the top reason of creating an alliance with another firm is that the union promotes attainment of strategic goals more quickly and inexpensively than if the company acts on its own. Especially in this era of intense change, rapid technological advance and ever-increasing globalization, alliances enable organizations to gain flexibility, leverage competencies, shared resources, and create opportunities that otherwise are unthinkable. Even though reality shows us that the number of strategic alliances that have succeeded is very low.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Beowulf vs. Modern Society :: Epic of Beowulf Essays

Beowulf vs. Modern Society Are there any similarities between life in modern America and the world of Beowulf? Is it possible for such a technology oriented world such as ours to have anything in common with a world which had not even heard of electricity? Has this technology really separated us from prior civilizations? Is our thinking today any different from the thinking of ancient cultures? Although it may not seem to be true, there are actually many similarities between our world and that of Beowulf’s. These similarities are readily seen in all forms of media and entertainment, as well as noted sources of culture such as music and movies. If the similarity between the two cultures is accepted, it will not be hard to comprehend Beowulf. The first and most notable similarity is drinking. King Hrothgar built a giant mead-hall, namely Heorot, to accommodate his celebrations. Throughout Beowulf it can be seen that celebrations of any kind are always accompanied by drinking. Drinking is just present today as it was thousands of years ago. People today always include drinking in their celebrations, whether it be a birthday, anniversary, or marriage. Heorot is nothing more than a tremendous bar. The festivities of the warriors in Beowulf’s time can be seen every night in any local bar or pub. Another similarity of course is violence. Violence is obviously present in Beowulf’s world. The determinant of status holds its roots in violence. The only way for a warrior to prove himself is through battle, or violence. Specifically this can be seen through the character, Unferth. He was not respected as a warrior due to his inability to win battles. He tried to find faults in Beowulf to raise his own ego. The disrespect given to this man was due to his unsuccessfulness in violent engagements. Modern violence is present all around us. No matter which way one turns, violence will be there to greet him. Whether it be on the street, in school, or even at home, violence cannot be avoided. The presence of this violence in society leads to stress. This stress is to a large extent the cause of the similarity mentioned earlier, namely drinking. Anyone from the local bully to a armed robber can be representatives of modern violence. Although it is present in everyday life, this violence can be seen easier in any form of media.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Ai WeiWei Essay

Ai WeiWei blurred the lines between the aesthetic and the political. According to the internet, aesthetic is defined as concerned with beauty or the appreciation of beauty. Ai WeiWei used art to â€Å"protest† against the Chinese government. Ai Weiwei was a creative man who thought of ideas how to represent the names of all the children who were killed in a deadly earthquake. A commentator in the movie claimed that Ai WeiWei was doing a job that the government should be doing. A deadly earthquake collapsed many buildings including homes and schools. Thousands of children were killed and were left unrecognized. Ai WeiWei wasn’t going to let this go. He assembled a project, full of volunteers to help him search for the names of the children who were killed in the disaster. He placed every individual name on his wall. The project inspired him to create more pieces of art work to revolt against the Chinese government. Ai WeiWei was a fearless man. Ai WeiWei was very involved with social media. He used twitter to share to the world how corrupt China’s government was. He left China when he said â€Å"Fuck You Mother Land. † Cameras are sometimes forbidden in China. Ai WeiWei was assaulted by a police officer, but that did not stop him from taking pictures in front court houses or of an officer who was at the scene when he was attacked. Ai WeiWei created a wall full of back packs to make other individuals aware of the children that died in the earthquake. During the 2nd anniversary, Ai WeiWei asked his followers to pick a name and record it on tape and share it to the world. Ai WeiWei was sharing his experience in China of the corrupt government with thousands of people around the world. Ai WeiWei made people aware of what was going on in China. Ai WeiWei became well-known through his work of art. He expressed his ideas through his work. Not only did his art make him well-known, Ai WeiWei captured many supporters to revolt against the corrupt system. Ai WeiWei was a man with no selfishness. He looked out for others and he was always looking and searching for ideas that would help him and his followers. Ai WeiWei was not afraid of the consequences, as long as he knew it was for the good.

Friday, January 3, 2020

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Thursday, December 26, 2019

Scottish Merchant - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 909 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2019/07/29 Category People Essay Level High school Tags: Alexander Hamilton Essay Did you like this example? Alexander Hamilton was born in Charlestown, Nevis, in the West Indies on January 11, 1757, to James Hamilton, who was a Scottish merchant of St. Christopher, and to his mothers name was Rachel Fawcett. Rachels father was a Huguenot physician and planter. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Scottish Merchant" essay for you Create order While very young, she had been married and divorced After her divorce, the court had said she couldnt get remarried. Her marriage to James Hamilton was accepted in the West Indies,but anywhere else it wasnt.She ended up giving birth to two sons, but less than ten years later the couple were living apart. Rachel and her boys lived on St. Croix,and there she depended on her relatives. She had sadly in 1768. But his father had lived up until 1799. But the boys were already orphans before they were close to being teenagers. By the time Hamilton was twelve he had began work as a clerk in a general store. But he had some keen intellect and ambitious goals. He was also and excellent writer, in both English and French. In 1772, his aunts saved up to be able to send the young intellectual to New York for a formal education. But by 1773 Hamilton was entered at Kings College, which is now Columbia. Even when he was a young man he had a strong hold on political issues concerning the British and American government. He was on seventeen when he exhibited in a series of anonymous pamphlets, they were also attributed to John Jay. But in 1775 he founded a volunteer military company, so Hamilton quit his college studies. But obviously he was good at it cause on March 14, 1776, he was commissioned Captain of the New York Company of Artillery. Nathanael Greene noticed that Hamilton had great skills and intelligence in his duties with artillery.He was asked to serve on the staff of Lord Stirling,but he said no and continued on with his career with artillery at Long Island,also along with other places such as Harlem Heights, and White Plains. Then he saw some action at Trenton and Princeton in the New Jersey campaign. Another person realized how extraordinary Hamilton was it was Washington, but it was for a different reason this time. It was for his leadership abilities, also his extraordinary talent for writing. Then on March 1st, 1777, Hamilton got promoted to Lieutenant Colonel, and made a aide-de-camp. And he was just twenty years old and he has made so many accomplishments. In the winter of 1777-1778 Hamilton stayed with Washington and the Continental Army at Valley Forge. During this winter is when Brigadier General Horatio Gates tried but failed to incriminate Hamilton during the Conway Cabal. Then finally Alexander Hamilton married Elizabeth Schuyler on December 14, 1780, she was the daughter of Philip Schuyler, who was a Revolutionary War general, and her mothers name was Catherine Van Rensselaer Schuyler. Both families were very wealthy and prominent New York families. That marriage was very happy and they made eight children out of that marriage. But on February 16, 1781, Hamilton and Washington had a quarrel which soured their relationship. He had told his father-in-law in a letter that was dated He describes the incident in a letter that was dated February 18, 1791. His letter he wrote explained what happened. ?Two days ago, the General and I passed each other on the stairs. He told me he wanted to speak to me. I answered that I would wait upon him immediately. I went below, and delivered Mr. Tilghman a letter to be sent to the commissary, containing an order of a pressing and interesting nature. Returning to the General, I was stopped on the way by the Marquis de Lafayette, and we conversed together about a minute on a matter of business. He can testify how impatient I was to get back [. . .] I met him [Washington] at the head of the stairs, where, accosting me in an angry tone, Colonel Hamilton, said he, Â  you have kept me waiting at the head of the stairs these ten minutes. I must tell you sir, you treat me with disrespect. I replied without petulancy, but with decision: I am not conscious of it, sir, but since you have thought it necessary to tell me so, we part. Very Well, sir, said he, if it be your choice, or something to this effect, and we separated. I sincerely believe my absence, which gave so much umbrage, did not last two minutes. But any attempts for reconciliation was not an option. In Moses Hazens Brigade in July, Hamilton was given command of the battalion of Lafayette Division. And the he contributed in the final American victory there, Hamilton led a successful attack at Yorktown. And when he was made Colonel in Sep 30, 1783,he continued with the military. But by the end of that year he left the service. Hamilton represented the state of New York and appointed to the Congress of the Confederation. But in 1783 he set up a law practice and resigned from Congress. Then he found the Bank of New York and continued an influence in national politics. He also found and led the Federalist Political Party, and was co-authoring the Federalist Papers along with John Jay, and Madison.Hamilton was a big reason the Articles were replaced in 1787, cause he played a key role in creating the Constitution. In 1789-1795 he served as a first Secretary of the Treasury in George Washingtons ,and that led to the establishment of our national monetary system.

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

I Am A Foreign, Learning A Language, And An Argumentative...

Writing has always been my greatest weakness throughout the years that i have been in school. Since I’am a foreign, learning a language was a challenging especially when my native language is completely different than English. Even though my communication skills have been improved dramatically since I have been here in the United States, writing is the only skill that i need to improve. I have signed up to take English 110C for mainly two reason. The first reason is that it is a mandatory course for all incoming freshmen to be eligible to graduate. The second reason is that it will help me improve my writing skills that i will need throughout my college years and the future. Throughout the semester, I have written a plethora of essays such as a rhetorical analysis, comparative review, annotated bibliography, exploratory, and an argumentative essay. Since it is my first time writing these types of essays, I struggled at first trying to figure out how to start the essays; howe ver, our professor assisted us and showed us sample essays that help us write our essays. I’ am very thankful that i managed to take this course because i have learned a numerous of writing skills that will help me throughout my college years. The first paper that i had to write in English 110c is called a Rhetorical Analysis. At first, i had no idea what it was, but i managed to figured it out once I have read about it in the textbook and the help from my professor. The main purpose of a RhetoricalShow MoreRelatedEducator Application Essay982 Words   |  4 Pages I am writing to apply for the position of Educator Preparation of ELL/ESL, Literacy faculty at Wayne State College. I hold a doctor of philosophy degree in Foreign, Second, and Multilingual Language Education (within the TESOL program) with an interdisciplinary specialization in Educational Technology. Moreover, I have experience in teaching diverse learners English in EFL and ESL settings. I am confident that my educational background and teaching experience enable me to make contributionsRead MoreLearning From A Foreign Language991 Words   |  4 Pages Learning to write in a foreign language Life is weird and unexpected. You don’t know what is coming up or what is going through. You don’t know what’s next, but you do have choices, plans and Images of your future. I started reading and writing when I was 4, it was in Arabic and writing in Arabic doesn’t have many rules. So by the age of eight, I was done with learning how to read and write, and started my science studies. I gained some of my skills throughRead MoreAfrican Learners And Native Speakers Essay4581 Words   |  19 Pagesand at the level of larger discourse structure. The present study aims to account the use of discourse connective but in the argumentative essays written by non-native learners of English (NNS) and native speakers of American English (ALOCNESS). The patterns of use by L2 learners are compared with those of native speakers. The study reveals that the argumentative essays of non-native learners of English and American students do not differ significantly regarding the discourse connective but neitherRead MoreEssay on Asian Philosophies of Critical Thinking5513 Words   |  23 PagesCritical Thinking The research question of this extended essay came across at a very early stage in my life. Having been born and developed from a family with all its members being University instructors and professors, I was often involved in arguments related to the lack of critical thinking in Asian cultures. As I got older, having had the chance to emerge in different cultures, I started to develop my own viewpoints and answers. I started to wonder about the truth between the real differencesRead MoreExample Research: Critical Discourse Analysis9514 Words   |  39 Pagesthus want to understand, expose, and ultimately resist social inequality. Some of the tenets of CDA can already be found in the critical theory of the Frankfurt School before the Second World War (Agger 1992b; Rasmussen 1996). Its current focus on language and discourse was initiated with the critical linguistics that emerged (mostly in the UK and Australia) at the end of the 1970s (Fowler et al. 1979; see also Mey 1985). 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Read MoreIgbo Dictionary129408 Words   |  518 Pagesmake the manuscript available, I have therefore joined together the fragments of the electronic manuscript and converted all the diacritics to a single system. I hope I have done this consistently, but errors may still remain. Where something was mistyped from the ms. the global conversion occasionally produced eccentric results. I have checked this as far as possible against the photocopy, but some inconsistencies between photocopy and electronic file may remain. I have also corrected other obviousRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 PagesLibrary of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Robbins, Stephen P. Organizational behavior / Stephen P. Robbins, Timothy A. Judge. — 15th ed. p. cm. Includes indexes. ISBN-13: 978-0-13-283487-2 ISBN-10: 0-13-283487-1 1. Organizational behavior. I. Judge, Tim. II. Title. HD58.7.R62 2012 658.3—dc23 2011038674 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN 10: 0-13-283487-1 ISBN 13: 978-0-13-283487-2 Brief Contents Preface xxii 1 2 Introduction 1 What Is Organizational Behavior? 3 The Individual

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Mus 1014-Understanding Contemporary and Popular Music Musicsmus 1014-Understanding Contemporary and Popular Music Musics free essay sample

Music Idolism blinds most people’s judgment in the world be it if he/she is educated in music. So, what factors are involved in Music Idolism? The two major factors involved are appearances and of course, music. Most people would say ‘person A is my idol! ’ or ‘I love person A! ’ and the reason for those statements is the artist’s appearance and music. If an artist is handsome or pretty, it already gives them a big advantage. As what most people would talk about is their appearances as it is the first impression of the artist that gives him/her the popularity factor. People then spread word about that artist to their friends and which in turn shares about that artist in the internet through sources like Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and many more. The other major factor is music. What is involved in music that will make the world go crazy? How did so many artists achieve popularity? In 21st century music, most popular artist use a four chord loop or catchy rhythms that will draw the attention of many listeners. And soon, more artists followed in the same style in hopes of getting famous. After all these said, how does it affect people in the world today? Imagine telling a group of friends about a song and wanting to introduce it to them. After saying ‘I want to introduce you to this music. ’ A friend immediately says ‘no! Artist X is better; his music is good and nobody makes better music than him, so I’m not going to listen to this. ’ And he/she says that without listening to the music introduced first. Besides these, we have seen many people who are influenced by their idol artists. I have friend who said ‘I want to play the piano like pianist X’ and many people started using their idols to judge others in terms of music too. When I show my friend some piano videos, most of my friends will say statements like ‘no, pianist X is better’. When I ask why, the reply would be ‘because he is my idol and he is so handsome! ’ As such, many people view themselves as inferior to their idols and are stuck in their own â€Å"idol bubble. † Music Idolism is not just a problem in the 21st century, we can also see music idolism also in the early 19th century. Seen in Beethoven’s time in Nicholas Cook’s book. From his book, Cook says that â€Å"for generations, finding your voice as a composer meant defining yourself in relation to Beethoven. â€Å" From this, the evidence is strong that Music Idolism exists then. Many musicians of the 19th century write music for set occasions. Like Bach, who writes music for his church and Haydn, who writes music for a feudal landowner in Hungary. But Beethoven writes music that he wanted to write. As such he began a new idea in which many people followed and which in turn, many musicians turned him into their personal idol. So from then, music idolism existed and even after Beethoven’s death, many other composers took his place as an idol like the ever famous Chopin, who caused many people of the 21st century to learn piano, saying that they want to play like Chopin or play Chopin’s pieces. But this also caused a different effect where people who are new to music just want to learn their (referring to Beethoven, Chopin and the more famous classical/romantic composers) music without learning the basic skills on the piano. I have seen people who learn piano just for these pieces but yet as they do not have basic skills, I feel that they are a disgrace to the composers when they play the piece without feelings or emotion and even with an extremely lot of mistakes. It just makes me mad to think of what most people view classical amp; romantic pieces as. Just a ‘show-off’ piece. Even these pieces are used in modern day film and music, when Chinese pop idol Jay Chou came out with his movie ‘Secrets’, he stated that he has improvised Chopin’s music to make it sound like pop. This also sparked another reaction from his fans. Although the music came from Chopin’s Waltz in C-sharp minor and Etude Op. 10, No 5, many fans insisted that Jay Chou is the original composer of these pieces and disregarded Chopin. There are many other examples even in 21st century. In the most recent events we have an artist called PSY who came up with a song called ‘Gangnam Style’ which drew a full 1,129,853,656 viewers to become the most-watched YouTube video of all time. The world started learning the dance, the music and even started to learn to be like PSY. Before PSY, the world was on about Justin Bieber with his hit song ‘Baby’ in which also took the world by storm. We have all these great examples to see how Music Idolism has impacted the world and how it affects us and the way music is made or even so, affected the creditability of some. In another way, it can be said that people has been robbed of their musical birthright. As Christopher Small says in his book: The fundamental nature and meaning of music lie not in objects, not in musical works at all, but in action, in what people do. It is only by understanding what people do as they take part in a musical act that we can hope to understand its nature and the function it fulfills in human life. †¦ â€Å"†¦ everyone, every normally endowed human being, is born with the gift of music no less than with the gift of speech. If that is so, then our present-day concert life, whether ‘classical’ or ‘popular’, in which the ‘talented’ few are empowered to produce music for the ‘untalented’ majority, is based on a falsehood. It means that our powers of making music for ourselves have been hijacked and the majority of people robbed of the musicality that is there by right of birth, while a few stars, and their handlers, grow rich and famous through selling us what we have been led to believe we lack. So according to Small, everyone has the gift of music but not everyone has managed to find it. And thus lead to think that most people are musically untalented like what most of my friends say ‘I’m not musically inclined like you. ’ However this is not true! Often people ask each other ‘can you sing? ’ But I emphasize this to my friends, ‘everyone can sing. It’s how well you do it. ’ The same, to my friends who think they are rhythmic idiots and cannot follow beats. I would say to them, ‘If you think you cannot follow rhythm, then why is it, that you can walk in rhythm? And you can hammer a nail in rhythm? And even so, your heart beats in rhythm and you breathe in rhythm. ’ So why then, that Music Idolism exists in this world? It all leads to the individual. Whether or not to decide to idolize someone or be true to oneself. Do not get me wrong, there is nothing wrong about listening to an artist’s music or talk about it, or spread it to friends or even play it and improvise it. Music is about oneself and not about other people. Like what small said, it defines one self’s mind, character and how different one can be from the rest. But it is obvious that someone has idolized an artist when someone says that artist A is better than artist B simply because ‘he is handsome’ or ‘I like his music more’. There is no basis in these sentences. Imagine, I want to buy an ice-cream and when I go to the supermarket, I see that A is cheaper by say $2. It does not mean that A’s quality is bad until I try it. So to avoid Music Idolism, listen to other’s music before saying that A is better than B. And for musicians, respect the composers. If the piece is not one’s current level, improve one’s skills before learning it. Do not learn music for a piece, learn music for oneself.